Oil has different compounds which have different areas of application, before those compounds can be refined from oil it has to be extracted in crude form and subjected through some scientific processes. Over millions of years, dead organisms sink deep into the earth and decompose forming the oil. The fact is that the earths tectonic plates are occasionally moving and shifting and this in turn has natural gas and oil trapped in some rocks.
Oil drilling companies have contributed to making the world what it is today, without them the energy industry wouldn’t be as we know it. To have oil, exploration followed by extraction has to take place and it’s all the work of oil companies. Geologists are the professionals that are entrusted with the finding of oil, this is the exploration part. They look for areas that have good conditions that may trap oil . Oil flow will be influenced by gravity, if the geologist can ,measure the direction in which gravity changes, they could tell which way the oil is flowing. If gravity is not the way to go , 3D and 4D seismic imaging can be used to locate the oil that is in the reservoir rocks . This kind of oil exploration works by sending some shocks with some special equipment deep into the hidden rocks of the earth.
The reflections of the waves are then sent back to the surface of the earth where the geologist will then analyze them to have some results. The moment oil exploration reveals that there are good deposits of oil that can be extracted then the area is marked, if under water buoys are used and if on land they mark the coordinates. Identifying an area to extract oil is one thing and mining is another. The geologists embark on conducting an environment impact study and marking the perimeter boundaries as well. The oil company will proceed to get the rights that allows them to break ground and start mining. If the company has been awarded the rights, it will start by clearing trees and any obstruction of movement to the area. Access roads aid in moving of machinery easily into the area and that’s why the company will embark on making the roads first.
Water is needed for the drilling process and if there is no water nearby the company will first drill boreholes. The excavation process will have a lot of mud and rocks being extracted which needs to be dumped, the company has to dig pits for this disposal. Around the main drilling hole, a pit will be dug to allow access to the main drilling area and finally the drilling can be done.